DENSsolutions has installed yet another Climate system in the U.S. at Alfred University

DENSsolutions has installed yet another Climate system in the U.S. at Alfred University

We are proud to announce that DENSsolutions has installed another Climate system in the United States, at Alfred University, which is located in the west of New York State. In this article, we interview Dr. Kun Wang, Assistant Professor at the Inamori School of Engineering in Alfred University, to learn more about their microscopy facility, its research direction, as well as how our Climate system is advancing their research.

Can you tell me more about the microscopy facility at Alfred University?

Alfred University has numerous research facilities that boast a wide range of high-tech equipment. There are dedicated facilities for materials characterization, mechanical and physical testing, biological evaluation of materials, spectroscopy, materials synthesis and processing as well as imaging and microscopy. The Imaging and Microscopy facility is equipped with a scanning electron microscope, an atomic force microscope and a fluorescent optical microscope, among many other tools. Just last summer, we had our new transmission electron microscope installed, the TFS Talos F200X. This microscope is equipped with a super X-ray detector which enables us to perform high resolution chemical analyses in a highly efficient manner.”

What type of applications are the users at Alfred using the Climate system for?

“Users of the facility are interested in a couple of applications, now enabled via the use of our newly acquired DENSsolutions Climate system. Via Climate, we would like to perform in situ oxidation and reduction experiments on batteries and catalyst materials. Moreover, we are interested in performing in situ high-temperature oxidation experiments for aerospace materials and nuclear matter in order to better understand these materials and their behavior under varying temperature conditions. We are also interested in performing energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in those experiments to get a better idea of the elemental composition of a given sample.”

What particular features of the DENSsolutions Climate solution attracted you to the system?

“Aside from the ability of the system to combine gas and heating functions, it was particularly important for me to use an in situ system that could handle high temperatures. Specifically, I was looking for a system that could handle high temperatures while still maintaining the stability of the holder. This is particularly what attracted me most to the Climate system.”

Can you tell me about the grant that was won to acquire the system?

“The grant was actually awarded several years ago, from an institute called the New York State’s Empire State Development, which provides numerous services and resources for education, healthcare, military and other fields.”

DENSsolutions Prof. Jungwon Park

Dr. Kun Wang
Assistant Proffessor | Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University

Dr. Kun Wang received his Ph.D. degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL). He used to work as a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Nuclear Materials Science and Technology group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Currently, he is working as an Assistant Professor at the Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University. His research focuses on study of structural materials under extreme environmental conditions.

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A comprehensive guide for data synchronization in operando gas and heating TEM

A comprehensive guide for data synchronization in operando gas and heating TEM

A team of experts develop a data synchronization method for operando gas and heating TEM via time delay calibration, enabled by the unique ability of the DENSsolutions Climate Nano-Reactor to perform nano-calorimetry.

Original article by Fan Zhang, Merijn Pen, Ronald G. Spruit, Hugo Perez Garza, Wei Liu, Dan Zhou

In recent years, operando gas and heating transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become recognized as a powerful tool for creating time-resolved correlations between the environment, reaction products, energy transfer and material structures during reaction processes. Via operando gas and heating TEM, a detailed understanding of the relationship between the structural evolution of a catalyst and its performance can be achieved. Despite its many benefits, one inevitable issue with the technique is the intrinsic time delays that occur between different parameter measurement locations. These time delays must be calibrated in order for researchers to draw valid correlations and conclusions. Correlations without time delay calibration could lead to, for example, over/under-estimating critical temperatures and generating misleading relationships between catalytic structure and activity.

In recent research performed at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, where our advanced Climate G+ system is installed, Fan Zhang, Dr. Wei Liu and our own team of experts, including Merijn Pen, Ronald G. Spruit, Dr. Hugo Perez Garza and Dr. Dan Zhou, developed a data synchronization method to account for time delays in operando gas and heating TEM. Specifically, they systematically explored the relationship between delayed time and reaction conditions such as gas pressure, flow rate and gas composition. Based on the results, they developed open source scripts that can be used to achieve reliable and automated data synchronization via time delay characterization and calibration. The authors also developed a general protocol to perform automatic time delay calibration for all kinds of TEM setups.

The experimental setup

The experimental setup used in the study included the DENSsolutions Climate Gas Supply System (GSS), Climate in situ TEM holder, Climate Nano-Reactor, Gas Analyzer and Thermo Fisher Scientific Themis ETEM. In Figure 1a) below, a schematic view of the operando gas and heating TEM setup is presented. Generally, a gas will first travel from the GSS into the TEM, and then from the TEM into the Mass Spectrometer (MS), also known as the Gas Analyzer. This process is depicted in Movie 1 below. The different colors in the video visualize what happens when the gas composition is changed, where a new color represents a new gas mixture. In this visual depiction, it is shown that the gas composition measurement at the GSS is actually ahead in time of the measurements at the TEM. This is because the gas takes time to reach the sample. Moreover, the measurements from the MS are also delayed because the gas needs time to flow from the TEM to the MS. A more detailed account of the gas path and the components involved is provided below.

The GSS contains three gas bottles as well as three flow controllers that measure and regulate the gasses’ flow rates. The gasses are mixed using a unique on-the-fly mixing technique, where a user can change the gas composition dynamically as well as alter the gas environment within a matter of seconds. The mixed gas is then guided into the Nano-Reactor in the TEM through the holder, and then to the MS, which derives the outlet gas composition by measuring the partial pressures of reactants and products. Expectedly, as the gas travels through this path, considerable time delays occur. In fact, the researchers found that a user-set gas composition change in the GSS will only show changes in the MS after 79.1 seconds (see Figure 1b) below). 

Movie 1: Movie depicting the gas path and time delays associated with operando gas and heating TEM.

Figure 1: (a) A schematic view of a gas cell based operando TEM gas path; (b) Illustration of time delay between GSS and MS. Here GSS data are measured by flow meter and MS by measuring the ionized gasses’ mass to charge ratio.

In Figure 2 below, a diagram of the operando gas and heating TEM setup used in this work is presented. The setup can be grouped in two ways: from a hardware perspective and from a gas path/TEM investigation perspective. In the case of the former grouping, the setup can be divided into GSS, TEM and MS. In the case of the latter grouping, the setup can be divided into pre-TEM, in-TEM and post-TEM. The researchers were able to synchronize the data from pre-, in- and post-TEM by first measuring and then calibrating the time delays involved. 

Figure 2: A diagram of the operando gas and heating TEM setup.

Calorimetry-based time delay calibration

The DENSsolutions Climate system offers users the unique ability to perform nano-calorimetry, which comes in as a convenient feature in the calibration of time delays. Specifically, when a new gas type enters the Nano-Reactor, this is detected by the microheater because it is very sensitive to even the most minute changes in heat. Users can monitor the gas changing process due to the difference in the thermal properties of the different gasses flown through the Nano-Reactor, enabling the detection of what time the new gas has reached the sample. The unique on-chip calorimetry feature of our Nano-Reactor allows for calibration of the time delays, and therefore enables perfect synchronization between gas compositional changes, TEM imaging and spectroscopy data.

Relationship between time delay and various parameters

The next step for the researchers was to systematically explore the relationship between the delayed time and reaction conditions such as gas pressure, flow rate and gas composition. They found that the delayed time between different parts, in either of the two grouping mechanisms, is determined by the gas pressure and flow rate in the Nano-Reactor, as well as the total gas path length. They also found that the time delay has little dependence on the gas type. The investigation of the relationship between the time delay and the above-mentioned critical parameters allowed the researchers to develop a functional relationship. Using the established functional relationship, they were able to lay the foundation for manually and automatically calibrating the time delays.

Automation of data synchronization

Based on the investigations, the authors developed algorithms and scripts to enable the automatic data synchronization in operando gas and heating TEM. Specifically, two open source Python scripts have been written for characterizing and calibrating the time delays in experiments. 

The first script characterizes the time delay curve, utilizing DENSsolutions Impulse API and ImpulsePy library to control and retrieve the measurements from the GSS, the heating control unit and the MS. It does this by alternating between different gas mixtures and measuring the time delays until these gas composition changes are detected in the calorimetry data of the microheater and in the partial pressure data from the Mass Spectrometer. It performs multiple gas composition switches at different flow-rates and pressures to collect enough data points to be able to fit the two characterization curves through them. These curves are the pre-TEM to in-TEM delay and the in-TEM to post-TEM delay characterization curves of that specific system. The characterization only needs to be performed once, after which the calibration file can be used repeatedly on any dataset measured by the same system.

The second script removes the time delays from a dataset by first splitting the system parameters into different sets: pre-TEM, in-TEM and post-TEM. Because the pressure and flow parameters can change over the duration of the experiment, the time delay correction amount is calculated and applied for every measurement in the dataset individually. The script then saves three corrected datasets (pre-TEM, in-TEM and post-TEM) individually with their own time resolution, and creates a synchronized log file in which the pre-TEM and post-TEM parameters are interpolated towards the in-TEM dataset timestamps. In Figure 3 below, an example of the synchronized data output from the time delay calibration script is presented. The data is then synchronized with the TEM imaging and spectroscopy data to achieve the complete operando gas and heating TEM data synchronization.

Figure 3: The synchronized data corrected by the time delay correction scripts.

General operation protocol

With the above conclusions and scripts, the authors have created a step-by-step guide for performing automatic time delay calibration for your own operando TEM setup. This protocol is summarized in Figure 4 below.

Figure 4: Schematic view of the operation protocol.

Conclusion

Time delay is an issue inherent to every gas supply system used in an operando gas and heating TEM setup. In a collaborative effort between DICP and DENSsolutions, the researchers have developed a data synchronization method to effectively address this problem. Specifically, by developing a functional relationship between delayed time and reaction conditions like gas pressure, flow rate and gas composition, the authors were able to develop open source scripts that characterize and calibrate the time delay automatically. On top of this, a conductive protocol is described such that any researcher can apply the data synchronization method to their own unique operando gas and heating experimental setup. Overall, this work is a major step forward in ensuring that researchers conducting operando gas and heating experiments are able to make valid correlations between critical parameters and provide the right conclusions and insights.

“The DENSsolutions Climate system is able to create an accurate working environment of what practical catalysts go through. Not only does the system facilitate the real-time observation of dynamic catalytic behavior, but it also enables the simultaneous monitoring of the performance of a catalyst by detecting the resulting products within the Nano-Reactor. By enabling this elaborate strategy of data synchronization in operando gas and heating TEM, Climate initiates the distinct functionality of correlating catalytic property with microstructural changes, which adds core value to what the technique of in situ TEM can reveal about a dynamic reaction.”

Prof. Dr. Wei Liu
Professor  |  Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS

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Scientists explore complex metal-support interactions under redox conditions using our Climate system

Via the DENSsolutions Climate system, a team of scientists uncover the dynamic interplay between platinum nanoparticles and titania support under reaction conditions.

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Scientists explore complex metal-support interactions under redox conditions using our Climate system

Scientists explore complex metal-support interactions under redox conditions using our Climate system

Via the DENSsolutions Climate system, a team of scientists uncover the dynamic interplay between platinum nanoparticles and titania support under reaction conditions.

Original article by H. Frey, A. Beck, X. Huang, J.A. van Bokhoven and M. G. Willinger

For catalysts consisting of metal nanoparticles and an oxide support, understanding the synergistic reactions between the metal and support is paramount. In the case of reducible supports, the so-called strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) provides a means of tuning the chemisorption and catalytic properties of supported metal particles. SMSI involves the encapsulation of nanoparticles by a thin layer of partially reduced support material. The encapsulation is typically induced during high-temperature reductive “activation”, i.e., treatment in hydrogen. Notably, the direct imaging of this encapsulated state has mostly been achieved ex situ. Little is known about SMSI under catalytic working conditions, where the application of in situ electron microscopy is invaluable. While environmental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is generally limited to chamber pressures of around 20 mbar, the DENSsolutions Climate Nano-Reactor can handle pressures 100 times higher, unlocking unprecedented research possibilities for the study of catalysts in their native environment.

In recent research performed at ScopeM, ETH Zurich, where our advanced Climate G+ system is installed, Hannes Frey, Arik Beck, Dr. Xing Huang, Prof. Dr. Jeroen Anton van Bokhoven and Prof. Dr. Marc Georg Willinger investigated the dynamic interplay between metal nanoparticles and oxide support under reaction conditions. More specifically, the scientists revealed the working state of a model catalyst, Pt–TiO, by directly observing the synergistic interactions related to SMSI between the platinum nanoparticles and titania support.

Switching to a redox-active H₂–O₂ mixture

Frey and his fellow collaborators first induced the classical SMSI state by heating the titania-supported platinum nanoparticles (NPs) in H₂. The nanoparticles were then transferred into an O₂ atmosphere via inert gas purging. Interestingly, this treatment resulted in the platinum NPs incurring a nonclassical oxidized SMSI state. After preparing the system, the researchers then exposed it to a redox active atmosphere through the addition of H₂ into the O₂ flow. With the Climate G+ system, the researchers were able to mix the gasses on the fly, while continuing with the high-resolution observation. 

In Figure 1 and Movie 1 below, the morphological change of the platinum NPs upon transition into the redox-active regime is presented. Increasing the partial pressure of H₂ in the Climate Nano-Reactor resulted in the gradual change in the encapsulated state of the Pt NPs. Moreover, this resulted in the ultimate disappearance of the overlayer as soon as the gas composition reached a set mixture of 60 mbar H₂ and 700 mbar O₂ after ~180 s. Once the overlayer was fully removed, the particle was observed to experience particle dynamics like restructuring and migration (shown in Figure 1E and 1F). 

Figure 1: Image series depicting the morphological changes observed when a titania-supported platinum nanoparticle in a nonclassical SMSI state is exposed to a redox-active atmosphere. The composition of the gas in the Nano-Reactor was gradually changed from 700 mbar O₂ to a mixture of 60 mbar H₂ plus 700 mbar O₂. t0 is the time at which the H₂ flow was turned on.

Movie 1: TEM Movie depicting the morphological changes observed when a titania-supported platinum nanoparticle in a nonclassical SMSI state is exposed to a redox-active atmosphere.

Particle and interfacial dynamics in the redox-active regime

The researchers then set out to explore the response of a collection of nanoparticles to reaction conditions. They discovered that the degree of structural dynamics and mobility differed greatly among the nanoparticles. Whereas some NPs remained static and stationary, others incurred structural fluctuations and migrated across the substrate surface. The researchers decided to follow three representative cases of nanoparticles with different orientations. In all cases, it is observed that the redox chemistry at the interface is the driving force for particle reconstruction and migration. In Figure 2 below, the respective structural dynamics of the three selected nanoparticles are presented.

Figure 2: (A–C) Pt NP oriented with (111) planes perpendicular to the interface. (G to J) Pt NP oriented with (111) planes parallel to the interface. (K to N) Pt NP that has its (111) planes inclined toward the interface. The blue shapes indicate the respective positions of the Pt NP in the previous frames.

Case 1

The first platinum NP that was considered was oriented with (111) planes perpendicular to the interface. In Movie 2 below, the recorded time series of this platinum NP at 600°C in an atmosphere containing 700 mbar O₂ plus 60 mbar H₂ is shown. Here, the NP developed pronounced structural dynamics that involved twin formation and shearing along (111) planes in an up-down motion, perpendicular to the interface. 

Movie 2: Recorded time series of the Pt NP presented in Figure 2A–C) at 600°C in an atmosphere containing 700 mbar O₂ plus 60 mbar H₂.

Case 2

The second Pt NP that was considered was oriented with (111) planes parallel to the interface. Movie 3 below shows the image series acquired for this nanoparticle, at 600°C in an atmosphere containing 700 mbar O₂ plus 60 mbar H₂. Here, a continuous step flow motion of the (111)-type facet in contact with the interface is observed.

Movie 3: Image series of the Pt NP presented in Figure 2G–J) at 600°C in an atmosphere containing 700 mbar O₂ plus 60 mbar H₂.

Case 3

The third platinum NP that was considered was oriented with (111) planes inclined towards the interface. Movie 4 below shows the image series acquired for this nanoparticle, at 600°C in an atmosphere containing 700 mbar O₂ plus 60 mbar H₂. In this case, the nanoparticle is observed to engage in redox chemistry-driven directional surface migration which is caused by restructuring at the interface.

Movie 4: Image series of the Pt NP presented in Figure 2K–N) at 600°C in an atmosphere containing 700 mbar O₂ plus 60 mbar H₂.

Retraction of H₂ and reformation of the oxidic SMSI overlayer

The next step for Frey and his fellow researchers was to switch the gas composition from a reactive feed back to a purely oxidizing environment by turning off the H₂ flow. This change in the gas composition resulted in the encapsulated state of the platinum NPs to be reestablished. In Figure 3 below, the morphological change of a Pt NP upon switching the gas from a redox-active environment to a purely oxidizing environment is presented. This switching of the gas composition led to the reformation of a classical particle overgrowth. It is seen that the nanoparticles first adopted a spherical morphology (Figure 3A–C). Then, as soon as H₂ was fully removed from the Nano-Reactor, the support material migrated onto the Pt NPs and the overlayer reformed (Figure 3D–F).

Figure 3: Image series depicting the morphological changes of a Pt NP observed when switching from a redox-active to purely oxidizing environment at 600°C. t0 is the time at which the H₂ flow was set to zero.

Conclusion

The aim of this paper was to reveal the working state of a catalyst via direct observation and to study possible synergistic interactions related to SMSI between metal nanoparticles and a reducible oxide support. The use of our Climate system enabled the researchers to capture in exceptional detail the dynamic and complex metal-support interactions of Pt–TiO₂ under reactive catalytic conditions. This is especially thanks to the advanced capacity of the system to handle pressures of up to 2 bar. 

A key finding of this paper is that the stable configurations of static Pt particles exhibiting encapsulation were observed to exist either in pure H₂ (the classical SMSI state) or in pure O₂ (the nonclassical SMSI state), but not in an environment where both gases were simultaneously present. Indeed, the exposure to the redox-active environment led to the removal of the overlayer and the subsequent emergence of pronounced particle dynamics. Moreover, the in situ observations show that the particle restructuring and migration behavior is dependent on the relative orientation of the particle on the support, and therefore the configuration of the interface. Overall, these findings advance our comprehension of SMSI-induced encapsulation of metal nanoparticles, which can in turn help us better tune the chemisorption and catalytic properties of catalysts. 

Hanglong Wu portrait

“The DENSsolutions Climate System allows us to reveal the so-far unseen: Looking at not only how the gas-phase is changed in the presence of a catalyst, but also studying how the interaction between gas-phase and catalyst leads to the emergence of catalytic function. Direct real-space observation is essential for our understanding of working catalysts and the development of new processes that are urgently needed in view of climate change and limited natural resources.”

Prof. Dr. Marc-Georg Willinger
Professor  |  Technical University of Munich

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Climate helps uncover phase coexistence and structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts

Using our Climate system, scientists are able to interrelate the atomic-scale structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts to their activity.

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Hydrogen vs. syngas: The battle of the reducing gases

Hydrogen vs. syngas: The battle of the reducing gases

Using our Climate system, scientists are able to unveil the most effective method to obtain sintering-resistant metallic cobalt nanoparticles at lower temperatures.

Original article by Ofentse A. Makgae, Tumelo N. Phaahlamohlaka, Benzhen Yao, Manfred E. Schuster, Thomas J. A. Slater, Peter P. Edwards, Neil J. Coville, Emanuela Liberti, and Angus I. Kirkland

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an established catalytic chemical process that occurs when carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into hydrocarbons. These hydrocarbons can be further developed into high-quality fuels, lubricants as well as raw materials for the production of plastics, rubbers and industrial chemicals. In FTS, supported cobalt catalysts are commonly used, which are active in their reduced metallic state. Many factors can affect the reduction process of cobalt oxide (Co₃3O₄) to metallic cobalt, including the reduction temperature, the composition of the reducing gas, the catalyst promoter, catalyst support and particle size. Despite this, little is known about the effect of using H₂ versus syngas (H₂ & CO) as the reducing agent on carbon-supported cobalt catalysts.

In recent research performed at the David Cockayne Centre for Electron Microscopy and the electron Physical Science Imaging Centre (ePSIC), a number of scientists from highly renowned universities and institutes, including University of Oxford, Johnson Matthey, Diamond Light Source and Cardiff University, investigate the atomic structure and valence state of cobalt nanocrystals on carbon supports under syngas versus hydrogen reduction. Specifically, using ex situ and in situ high-resolution aberration-corrected analytical electron microscopy with our Climate system, the researchers were able to explore the effect of H₂ versus syngas (H₂ & CO) on the reducibility of cobalt oxide nanoparticles supported on hollow carbon spheres. By uncovering highly effective methods to obtain sintering-resistant metallic Co nanoparticles at lower temperatures on hollow carbon sphere supports, this work provides valuable insights that can inform important industrial processes.

Synthesis and reduction of cobalt oxide

Dr. Ofenste Makgae and his fellow collaborators first synthesized the Co₃3O₄ nanoparticles before preparing the hollow carbon sphere supports (HCSs). The synthesized Co₃3O₄ nanoparticles were then loaded on the surface of the HCSs to prepare the precursor catalyst.

The researchers then initiated the reduction process of the Co₃3O₄ nanoparticles for both the ex situ and in situ analysis. For the ex situ analysis, the precursor was reduced via H₂ and syngas, respectively, at 350 °C at atmospheric pressure for 20 hours. For the in situ analysis, the catalysts were studied using the DENSsolutions Climate system in a probe-corrected JEOL ARM200F at ePSIC operated at 200 kV. Notably, the DENSsolutions Climate system is capable of real-time dynamic mixing of 3 gases over a temperature range from room temperature to 1000 °C. Via the Climate Gas Supply System, Dr. Makgae and his fellow collaborators were able to provide a 0.2mL/min flow of gas at a pressure of 500mbar for both the H₂ and syngas reduction. The temperature was ramped from room temperature to 150 °C under a N₂ flow to remove contaminants. Next, it was ramped to 350 °C at 10 °C/min under a reducing environment. Finally, the temperature was held at 350 °C for 2 hours for catalyst activation.

Ex situ post-reduction morphology analysis

The researchers then set out to analyze the overall morphology of the carbon support post reduction, to ensure that its integrity was not compromised during the reduction process. In Figure 1 below, (high-resolution) STEM-ADF images of the as-prepared Co₃3O₄ and ex situ syngas- and H₂-reduced HCS-supported nanoparticles are shown. The researchers were able to determine that the morphology of the HCSs remained intact after 20 hours of reduction at 350 °C.

Figure 1: STEM–ADF images of the Co nanoparticles (a) before and after the ex situ reduction in (b) syngas (H₂/CO = 2) and (c) H₂ at 350 °C. (d–f) are the corresponding high-resolution STEM–ADF images of the as-prepared Co₃3O₄, syngas-, and H₂-reduced nanoparticles.

EELS spectra and elemental maps

Aside from morphological changes, the oxidation state of cobalt also changes during the reduction process as a function of the reducing gas composition. Using STEM–EELS, the researchers were able to thoroughly investigate the Co-oxidation state changes. Figure 2 below compares the EELS spectra and elemental maps of single particles of the as-prepared Co₃3O₄, and the syngas-reduced and H₂-reduced nanoparticles. Via the EELS spectra analysis, the researchers determined that there was indeed a significant decrease in the oxidation state of Co.

Figure 2: EELS spectra of the as-prepared Co₃3O₄ (green), syngas- (orange), and H₂- (blue) ex situ reduced nanoparticles at 350 °C. EELS elemental maps of (b–d) as-prepared, (e–g) syngas-reduced, and (h–j) H₂-reduced Co₃3O₄ nanoparticles.

Importantly, the EELS spectra observations also show that the degree of reduction varies amongst the two methods (H₂ and syngas). To explore this further, the researchers collected additional spectra to compare the ex situ syngas-reduced and H₂-reduced nanoparticles at 350 °C, with the as-prepared Co₃3O₄ as a reference. From this further analysis, it is observed that the Co in the case of the syngas-reduced nanoparticles’ spectra is in a near-metallic state as compared to the H₂-reduced nanoparticles. These results are consistent with the elemental maps obtained, showing that a more intense Co signal (green) is observed in the elemental map from a syngas-reduced nanoparticle (Figure 2g), compared to a more diffuse Co signal in the elemental map of a H₂-reduced nanoparticle (Figure 2j). Ultimately, in the absence of air surface reoxidation, the results of the in situ STEM–EELS and ADF analysis show that syngas achieves a higher degree of Co reduction than H₂.

High-resolution STEM-ADF analysis

The next step for Dr. Makgae and his collaborators was to perform high-resolution STEM–ADF imaging in order to investigate the differences in the atomic structure associated with the observed differences in Co-oxidation states in the syngas- and H₂-reduced nanoparticles. They explored the reduction of the syngas- and H₂-reduced nanoparticles at two different temperatures, 350 °C and 600 °C.

1) At 350 °C

In Figure 3a–e below, the high-resolution STEM–ADF images of syngas-reduced nanoparticles (a–c) and H₂-reduced nanoparticles (d,e) are presented. The results were found to be consistent with the EELS data, showing that syngas reduction produces a majority of metallic Co nanoparticles, whereas H₂ produced particles with a majority of the Co in the 2+ oxidation state. 

Figure 3: High-resolution STEM–ADF images of ex situ (a–c) 350 °C syngas-reduced nanoparticles and (d,e) H₂-reduced nanoparticles.

2) At 600 °C

The temperature was then increased to 600 °C to investigate the effect of temperature on reducing HCS-supported Co₃3O₄ nanoparticles under H₂ versus syngas. It is observed that both the H₂- and syngas-reduced nanoparticles exhibit an atomic structure consistent with cobalt (Figure 4a–d). Indeed, the results are consistent with the EELS data from the 600 °C reduced nanoparticles, which shows the presence of metallic cobalt. Conclusively, in order to achieve a complete reduction of Co₃3O₄ under H₂, the HCS-supported nanoparticles must be reduced at high temperatures. Importantly, it is observed that the high temperature of 600 °C resulted in severe sintering of the nanoparticles reduced in H₂ compared to syngas. The sinter-resistance in syngas-reduced nanoparticles is attributed to the encapsulation of nanoparticles with a carbon shell (indicated by the orange arrow in Figure 4b). This encapsulation prevents the coalescence of the nanoparticles at high temperatures. Interestingly, in the case of the H₂-reduced nanoparticles, a carbon shell is not observed (Figure 4d).

Figure 4: High-resolution STEM–ADF images of 600 °C ex situ (a,b) syngas-reduced nanoparticles and (c,d) H₂-reduced Co nanoparticles.

Conclusively, the presence of CO in syngas is observed to play a critical role in the conversion of Co₃3O₄ to metallic Co at 350 °C. In contrast, the full reduction of Co₃3O₄ to active metallic Co in H₂ is not achieved at 350 °C. Increasing the activation temperature to 600 °C does drive the complete reduction, however, significant particle sintering was still observed. Therefore, the presence of CO in a syngas mixture is indeed crucial to achieving complete Co₃3O₄ reduction at 350 °C.

Conclusion

This paper comprehensively illuminates the most effective method to obtain sintering-resistant metallic cobalt nanoparticles at lower temperatures under carbon supports. By conducting a thorough ex situ and in situ electron microscopy analysis using the DENSsolutions Climate system, Dr. Makgae and his fellow collaborators were able to observe under nanometer resolution how the reduction process under H₂ versus syngas affects the physicochemical properties of the reduced nanoparticles. The findings show that syngas achieves a higher reduction at an industrially relevant Fischer-Tropsch reduction temperature of 350 °C compared to H₂ on carbon supports. Importantly, lower reduction temperatures are more efficient as operating costs are reduced, which is a significant consideration for organizations involved in industrial processes. The discovery of such findings could not be possible without the application of in situ electron microscopy techniques, for which our Climate system has proved to be remarkably valuable.

“The DENSsolutions Climate system allowed us to directly evaluate the reducibility of Fischer-Tropsch catalysts under industrially relevant temperatures. Such observations provide a unique insight into the evolution of catalysts under activation conditions.

Dr. Ofentse Makgae
Post-doctoral Research Fellow  |  Lund University

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Climate helps uncover phase coexistence and structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts

Using our Climate system, scientists are able to interrelate the atomic-scale structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts to their activity.

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Climate helps uncover phase coexistence and structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts

Climate helps uncover phase coexistence and structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts

Using our Climate system, scientists are able to interrelate the atomic-scale structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts to their activity.

Original article by Xing Huang, Travis Jones, Alexey Fedorov, Ramzi Farra, Christophe Copéret, Robert Schlögl, and Marc-Georg Willinger

Marc Willinger TOC 1200x628

Metal catalysts have been extensively studied due to their critical role in industrial redox reactions. However, many gaps in research still remain, hampering the optimization of their design. Specifically, the behavior of metal catalysts under operating conditions and the relationship between structural dynamics and catalytic activity are still not fully understood. Indeed, an atomistic comprehension of the structure–activity relationship of working catalysts is essential for the optimization of their design. 

In their recently published paper, Dr. Marc-Georg Willinger from ETH Zurich, Dr. Xing Huang from Fuzhou University and fellow collaborators from the Fritz-Haber Institute of Max-Planck Society and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion explore the phase coexistence and structural dynamics of redox metal catalysts. Using our Climate system, the researchers are able to achieve controlled gas-flow and imaging, obtaining atomic-level insights into the correlation between the structural and chemical dynamics and catalytic function. In light of today’s environmental challenges, the development of improved catalysts for more resource-efficient processes is becoming increasingly critical. Importantly, developing improved catalysts requires their direct observation during operating conditions. In this work, the authors have obtained atomic-scale insights into catalyst dynamics in various relevant redox reactions.

Redox reactions

Copper is a popular transition metal used as an active component in redox catalysts for many reactions, including CO₂ reduction and water gas shift reaction (WGSR). However, an atomistic description of the state of copper under redox conditions in these catalysts remains unrealized. In this publication, Dr. Willinger and his fellow collaborators present a detailed, high-resolution study of copper during the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), revealing fundamentals of catalyst dynamics under reactive conditions. Beyond the elementary hydrogen oxidation reaction, the researchers extend the observed dynamic behavior to more relevant redox reactions and other metal catalysts. Specifically, they explore the redox dynamics of copper and palladium in the active state during methanol oxidation and methane oxidation reactions, respectively.

Hydrogen oxidation reaction on copper

Studying HOR offers the opportunity to obtain detailed atomistic insights into the reaction between the catalyst and the gas phase. HOR was chosen because it is the most elementary redox reaction and yields only water as a product, thereby reducing the complexity related to potential electron-beam-induced processes. In this study, the researchers systematically assess the effects of temperature and gas-phase conditions. Moreover, they explore how the chemical potential of the gas phase defines the phase, size, and shape of catalyst particles, driving the system into a nonequilibrium dynamic state during catalysis. Due to the simultaneous detection of catalytic conversion, they are able to relate directly the observed dynamics and surface structures to catalytic activity. 

1) Redox dynamics and structural analysis of Cu

Copper nanoparticles of 50–200 nm were first loaded in the Climate Nano-Reactor. In situ TEM images of the copper nanoparticles were then recorded. It was found that the particles exhibit rich structural dynamics, which are associated with reconstruction and random motion, as well as particle sintering and red-ox induced splitting. The figure (A–L) and movie below depict these structural dynamics. Shown in M) is the integrated SAED pattern and corresponding radial intensity profile. The in situ SAED revealed dynamically appearing and disappearing diffraction spots, and confirmed the presence of metallic copper and Cu₂O as the sole oxide phase. The constant competition between oxide growth and reduction are reflected in the in situ SAED and the observed structural dynamics. Indeed, the structural dynamics are a consequence of chemical dynamics, characterized by phase coexistence and continuous interconversion between Cu⁰ and Cu₂O. The high-resolution imaging in Figure 1N) confirms this, showing a metallic head coherently interfacing with an oxide tail.

Figure 2: Marc Willinger

Figure 1: The redox dynamics and structural analysis of Cu. A–L) show the in situ TEM observations of catalyst reshaping (A–D), sintering (E–H), and splitting (I–L). In M) the integrated SAED pattern and corresponding radial intensity profile are shown. N) shows the HRTEM image of a nanoparticle containing a metallic head coherently interfacing with an oxide tail.

Movie 1: The redox dynamics of copper showing catalyst reshaping, sintering and splitting.

2) Effects of temperature and gas-phase composition

The authors then sought out to explore the effect of temperature on the observed redox dynamics. First, the temperature was decreased from 500 to 300°C, while maintaining a H₂/O₂ ratio of 10/1. During the temperature decrease, the researchers observed the growth of oxide dendrites, which reflects the increasing oxidation potential. Simultaneously, due to the slower kinetics of the redox reaction at lower temperatures, a reduction of the structural dynamics was observed. During heating from 300 to 750 °C, the system passes through a regime of increased dynamics (550 °C) that are characterized by translational motion and restructuring due to oxide growth and reduction, until it finally reaches a state that is less dynamic and dominated by metallic copper at 750°C. This is shown in the figure below (A–D). The reconstructed HRTEM images taken at 300 and 750°C are shown in 2E) and 2F), respectively. Next, integral SAED (Figure 2G,H) was performed to investigate phase analysis, revealing the relation between phase composition and temperature. It has been previously demonstrated that the trend in the oxide content reflects the decreasing chemical potential of oxygen with increasing temperature. However, the authors observe a notable exception of this general trend at around 550 °C, which is mostly due to the effect of water that is produced at substantial rate and contributes to the redox dynamics.

Figure 2: Marc Willinger

Figure 2: Chemical potential versus structural dynamics of Cu. A–D) In situ TEM observation of dynamics at 300–750 °C and a H₂/O₂ ratio of 10/1. E,F) show the reconstructed HRTEM images taken at 300 and 750 °C. G) and H) show the normalized radial profiles extracted from the integrated SAED patterns and subsequent radial intensity profile, respectively. I–L) In situ observation of copper dynamics during decreasing H₂/O₂ ratio from 10/1 to 5/1 at 500 °C.

Next, the researchers explored the influence of gas-phase composition on the structural dynamics, gradually decreasing the H₂/O₂ ratio from 10/1 to 5/1 at 500 °C. It was found that the relative increase of the oxygen partial pressure leads to a transformation of initially spherical nanoparticles into elongated particles with a head–tail structure. This is depicted in Figure 2I–L above. At the same time, the average particle size declines due to an increased rate of particle splitting, until a new size regime and dynamic equilibrium is established. Conclusively, the real-time observations under varying gas-phase composition and temperature show a clear effect of the gas-phase chemical potential on the average particle size. The in situ observations show clearly that redox dynamics make particles mobile, thereby considerably increasing the rate of sintering as compared to thermal sintering; yet the sintering under redox conditions is balanced by particle splitting, such that a certain size distribution is established as a function of reaction conditions.

“Controlled gas-flow and imaging – coupled with on-line mass spectroscopic analysis of the gas-phase composition as enabled by the Climate system – is essential for studies on the behavior of active catalyst and allows us to correlate observed structural and chemical dynamics to catalytic function.” – Dr. Marc-Georg Willinger, ETH Zurich

3) Relation between structural dynamics and catalytic activity

After investigating the gas-phase and temperature-induced dynamic processes, the researchers then sought out to explore the relationship between the observed structural dynamics and catalytic activity. The MS data is presented in Figure 3A) below, showing the formation of water and simultaneous consumption of oxygen. This ultimately confirms the catalytic activity of copper. A notable increase in water production and oxygen consumption is observed between 500 and 600°C, which is also the same range in which the intense structural dynamics occurred. In Figure 3B–D), the sequential HRTEM images of particle reshaping/restructuring at 550°C is presented (H₂/O₂ ratio of 10/1). This is also shown in the movie below. Although challenging, the researchers were still able to capture the thin oxide monolayer existing on the surface of the metallic portion of the particles (see Figure 3E,F). Interestingly, the surface oxide layer is observed even at 750°C. The structural features of the monolayer oxide imaged on various facets can be observed in Figure 3G,H).

Figure 3: Marc Willinger

Figure 3: Relation between structural dynamics of Cu and catalytic activity. A) shows the MS data collected at varied temperatures. B–D) show the sequential HRTEM images of particle reshaping/restructuring at 550°C. E,F) show the enlarged HRTEM images of the areas indicated by dashed rectangles in (B) and (D). G) shows an HRTEM image, and in H) an enlarged HRTEM image of the area indicated by the dotted rectangle in (G).

Movie 2: HRTEM movie showing particle reshaping and restructuring at 550°C

Methanol oxidation reaction on copper

After investigating the particle dynamics for hydrogen oxidation on copper, the researchers then set out to assess the generality of the phenomena described above. They first investigated the state of copper under conditions of methanol oxidation, a catalytic reaction that is relevant to industrial synthesis of formaldehyde. The figure below shows in situ TEM images of copper nanoparticles recorded at 600 and 500°C (Figure 4A–C and 4E–G), respectively. The dynamic behavior observed involves reshaping, sintering, and splitting of particles, similar to what was observed in the case of hydrogen oxidation. A shift to a more oxidized state with decreasing temperature was observed and verified by in situ SAED (Figure 4D,H). The redox dynamics are most pronounced at around 500°C under the chosen 1:1 ratio of MeOH and O₂.

Figure 4: Marc Willinger

Figure 4: Structural dynamics of Cu in methanol oxidation reaction. A–H) show TEM images and SAED patterns of Cu recorded in situ during methanol oxidation at 600 °C (A–D) and at 500 °C (E–H), respectively.

Methane oxidation reaction on palladium

Next, they investigated methane oxidation on palladium, a transition metal that is much harder to oxidize than copper. In the figure below, the structural dynamics related to catalytic activity in methane oxidation on palladium is presented. As in the case of copper, structural dynamics evolve when palladium is driven toward the Pd/PdO phase boundary. In an ~2:1 ratio of CH₄ and O₂, the catalyst remains relatively static at 350°C and shows coexistence of Pd and PdO as evinced by the in situ SAED. The system evolves to a highly dynamic state at 550°C. The MS data recorded simultaneously with TEM observation reveal a pronounced formation of CO₂ and consumption of CH₄ and O₂ under these conditions (see Figure 5I).

Figure 4: Marc Willinger

Figure 5: Structural dynamics related to catalytic activity in methane oxidation on Pd. A–H) In situ TEM images and SAED patterns of Pd recorded during methane oxidation at 350°C (A–D) and 550°C (E–H), respectively. I) shows the MS data recorded during in situ TEM observation of Pd in methane oxidation.

Conclusion

Via the above in situ studies of copper and palladium catalysts using our Climate system, the researchers show that catalytic activity goes hand-in-hand with redox processes of the metal catalyst. This paper evinces that the associated dynamics sensitively depend on reaction temperature and gas-phase composition. Importantly, only direct observation could reveal the interplay between metal and oxide phases and relate it to the onset of catalytic activity. This is precisely where our advanced in situ solutions come into play, enabling the direct observation of phenomena while it occurs. We are proud of the role that our Climate system has played in making this research possible and strive to continue enabling groundbreaking research in the future.

Hanglong Wu portrait

“The DENSsolutions Climate System allows us to reveal the so-far unseen: Looking at not only how the gas-phase is changed in the presence of a catalyst, but also studying how the interaction between gas-phase and catalyst leads to the emergence of catalytic function. Direct real-space observation is essential for our understanding of working catalysts and the development of new processes that are urgently needed in view of climate change and limited natural resources.”

Dr. Marc-Georg Willinger
Group Leader |  ETH Zurich

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DENSsolutions Climate system takes home the microscopy today 2021 innovation award

DENSsolutions’ Climate system takes home the Microscopy Today 2021 Innovation Award

DENSsolutions becomes a consecutive two-time winner of the Microscopy Today Innovation Awards. This year, our Climate system is recognized as one of the 10 most game-changing microscopy innovations of 2021.

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DENSsolutions’ Climate system takes home the Microscopy Today 2021 Innovation Award

DENSsolutions’ Climate system takes home the Microscopy Today 2021 Innovation Award

DENSsolutions becomes a consecutive two-time winner of the Microscopy Today Innovation Awards. This year, our Climate system is recognized as one of the 10 most game-changing microscopy innovations of 2021.

Just last year, our Stream system was awarded the Microscopy Today Innovation Award for its unique contribution to the field of liquid phase electron microscopy. We are honored to be taking home the same award for a second year in a row but this time for the remarkable innovation that is our Climate system. Climate is recognized as one of the 10 most game-changing microscopy innovations in 2021 by Microscopy Society of America‘s esteemed magazine, Microscopy Today. We interviewed our Chief Technology Officer Dr. Hugo Pérez-Garza, who led the development of the Climate system, to learn all about the unique benefits that made it earn such an esteemed award, as well as the development process and Climate’s current and envisioned applications. The transcript of the interview is provided below.

What was your reaction when you first heard the news?

It was pretty exciting. As you can imagine, the entire team was very happy when we first heard the news. At the end of the day, I think that this is just another consequence of the amazing teamwork that prevails in this company. And of course, to be accredited by the MSA is a big honor, especially as this is a highly esteemed award within the community. So it really means a lot to us. We really feel confident that our technology, and particularly our Climate system, will help scientists explore all sorts of new research possibilities.

What unique aspects of the system do you think made it earn such an esteemed award?

Over the last months, we have been exerting a lot of effort into making sure that we can improve the Climate system from various different angles. So that means that we have been doing a lot of work to ensure that we can optimize the different components that make up this plug-and-play system. Specifically, we have been trying to boost our MEMS capabilities (the Nano-Reactor). Moreover, we have been trying to continuously improve our hardware components, including the Gas Supply System, the Vaporizer, the Mass Spectrometer, etc. And of course, making sure that we can have new solutions as well for the software platform. Now when you put all these together, what we ended up realizing was that this new optimized Climate system brings all sort of real unique aspects to one’s research.

1) Live gas mixing

Firstly, Climate offers the possibility of performing live gas mixing (i.e. making sure that you can achieve any desired gas composition instantaneously). It ensures that users won’t have to wait for their gas mixtures to be prepared. We see this big added value in our customers’ experiments, for example in redox reactions, where the intrinsic nature of the experiment demands the possibility to quickly go from an oxidizing environment to a reducing environment. Often times people have to do this back-and-forth and in a fast and repetitive way. 

2) Start a new experiment (from a dry to wet environment or vice versa) within minutes

Furthermore, for these experiments a lot of researchers would be interested in humidifying the gas composition. This is precisely where the Vaporizer comes in. Now what happens here is that when you are humidifying the gas, often people are afraid of the contamination that the water molecules would represent for the gas lines. And that is why systems have to baked or have to undergo lengthy pumping times. But that wouldn’t be the case with the Vaporizer, as we have designed it in such a way that the introduction of the water vapor to the gas mixture is the last thing before entering the holder. So that ensures that your Gas Supply System will remain clean, and that you don’t have to perform these baking procedures or keep it pumping over night. This ultimately means you can go from a dry environment to a wet environment, or vice versa, in just a few minutes. So it opens up a lot of possibilities because it gives users this flexibility. 

3) Safely work with explosive mixtures and independently control gas parameters

The fact that we’re dealing with extremely low volumes of gas also means that we can safely handle explosive mixtures even if you plan to do this under extreme conditions such as high temperatures (above 1000°C) in combination with high pressures (i.e. 2 bars) and high relative humidity (i.e. 100%). Not only can you safely handle these explosive mixtures, but you can also control the relative humidity independently from other parameters such as temperature, pressure, gas composition and flow rate. So having this independent control also brings a lot of flexibility to users. 

4) Perform real nano-calorimetry and calibrate for time delay

The Nano-Reactor is also something very unique as we have been heavily optimizing the design such that, for example, the microheater allows for real nano-calorimetry. And this is really unique because it means that you can start quantifying and measuring the tiniest changes in temperature dissipation to understand if you’re observing an exothermic or endothermic reaction. And this is also really beneficial because you can calibrate for time delay, which is an issue that systems usually suffer from due to the unavoidable delay from the Gas Supply System to the MEMS device and to the Mass Spectrometer. Now, we can calibrate for that. 

5)  Prevent bypasses and achieve a desirable SNR

Moreover, the unique design of the Nano-Reactor itself, for which we have a patent, ensures that we can have an on-chip inlet and outlet. In other words, we can ensure that the gas will flow from the inlet to the outlet via the region of interest in a uni-directional way. And that means we can prevent bypasses and therefore improve the signal-to-noise ratio and the sensitivity of the Gas Analyzer. So the combination of these offerings (for example that our MEMS device can go to these high pressures like 2 bar, or allow you to perform EDS experiments well above 900 degrees at high pressures) ends up bringing a very unique value proposition for the user. 

What unique aspects of the system do you think made it earn such an esteemed award?

Over the last months, we have been exerting a lot of effort into making sure that we can improve the Climate system from various different angles. So that means that we have been doing a lot of work to ensure that we can optimize the different components that make up this plug-and-play system. Specifically, we have been trying to boost our MEMS capabilities (the Nano-Reactor). Moreover, we have been trying to continuously improve our hardware components, including the Gas Supply System, the Vaporizer, the Mass Spectrometer, etc. And of course, making sure that we can have new solutions as well for the software platform. Now when you put all these together, what we ended up realizing was that this new optimized Climate system brings all sort of real unique aspects to one’s research.

1) Live gas mixing

Firstly, Climate offers the possibility of performing live gas mixing (i.e. making sure that you can achieve any desired gas composition instantaneously). It ensures that users won’t have to wait for their gas mixtures to be prepared. We see this big added value in our customers’ experiments, for example in redox reactions, where the intrinsic nature of the experiment demands the possibility to quickly go from an oxidizing environment to a reducing environment. Often times people have to do this back-and-forth and in a fast and repetitive way. 

2) Start a new experiment (from a dry to wet environment or vice versa) within minutes

Furthermore, for these experiments a lot of researchers would be interested in humidifying the gas composition. This is precisely where the Vaporizer comes in. Now what happens here is that when you are humidifying the gas, often people are afraid of the contamination that the water molecules would represent for the gas lines. And that is why systems have to baked or have to undergo lengthy pumping times. But that wouldn’t be the case with the Vaporizer, as we have designed it in such a way that the introduction of the water vapor to the gas mixture is the last thing before entering the holder. So that ensures that your Gas Supply System will remain clean, and that you don’t have to perform these baking procedures or keep it pumping over night. This ultimately means you can go from a dry environment to a wet environment, or vice versa, in just a few minutes. So it opens up a lot of possibilities because it gives users this flexibility. 

3) Safely work with explosive mixtures and independently control gas parameters

The fact that we’re dealing with extremely low volumes of gas also means that we can safely handle explosive mixtures even if you plan to do this under extreme conditions such as high temperatures (above 1000°C) in combination with high pressures (i.e. 2 bars) and high relative humidity (i.e. 100%). Not only can you safely handle these explosive mixtures, but you can also control the relative humidity independently from other parameters such as temperature, pressure, gas composition and flow rate. So having this independent control also brings a lot of flexibility to users. 

4) Perform real nano-calorimetry and calibrate for time delay

The Nano-Reactor is also something very unique as we have been heavily optimizing the design such that, for example, the microheater allows for real nano-calorimetry. And this is really unique because it means that you can start quantifying and measuring the tiniest changes in temperature dissipation to understand if you’re observing an exothermic or endothermic reaction. And this is also really beneficial because you can calibrate for time delay, which is an issue that systems usually suffer from due to the unavoidable delay from the Gas Supply System to the MEMS device and to the Mass Spectrometer. Now, we can calibrate for that. 

5)  Prevent bypasses and achieve a desirable SNR

Moreover, the unique design of the Nano-Reactor itself, for which we have a patent, ensures that we can have an on-chip inlet and outlet. In other words, we can ensure that the gas will flow from the inlet to the outlet via the region of interest in a uni-directional way. And that means we can prevent bypasses and therefore improve the signal-to-noise ratio and the sensitivity of the Gas Analyzer. So the combination of these offerings (for example that our MEMS device can go to these high pressures like 2 bar, or allow you to perform EDS experiments well above 900 degrees at high pressures) ends up bringing a very unique value proposition for the user. 

What inspired you and the entire team to develop Climate in the first place?

Certainly understanding the importance and the impact that environmental studies can have on our global society was a big source of inspiration for the entire team. Having said that, understanding the solid-gas interactions at the nanoscale is what sets the foundation such that scientists can really start understanding how to optimize and synthesize future catalytic nanoparticles, which will end up playing a crucial role in applications such as carbon capture, energy storage and conversion as well as food production. So it is really this profound information that we can get from in situ TEM that gives this understanding. Because when you can start correlating particle size with composition, crystal orientation, or with the atomic or the electronic structure, it really gives a deep level of understanding for all these kinds of experiments. 

Can you walk us through the development process of Climate?

It has been 5 or 6 years since we launched our first product line for in situ gas analysis. Ever since, what we have been doing is trying to make sure that we can stay as close as we can to our customers as well as prospects. Now the intention of doing that is when you start gathering the feedback and the vision that both groups have, you start understanding the pain points a little bit more. You start becoming more empathic to their experimental needs. And that helps us identify the product profile that we should have in place. And when you are aware of this product profile, then automatically you know what technologies must be developed, which is part of your roadmap. And subsequently when you have that in place, then you also know what people and processes must be involved. So, it’s a matter of doing that so that when we gather these market requirements, we can follow a defined product creation process that will allow us to develop a technology that will match these market requirements. 

What future applications do you envision for Climate?

Certainly everything related to green technologies. As I mentioned earlier, that is a big goal and motivation that we all have at this company. So these kinds of experiments and topics I was referring to like carbon capture, energy conversion and storage, and all sort of environmental protection kind of studies, that’s really where everything will head towards. 

Thank you for reading. To learn more about our Climate system please follow the links below.

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