Dr. Qiang Xu

Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology,The Netherlands Authors | Qiang Xu, Meng-Yue Wu, Grégory F. Schneider, Lothar Houben, Sairam K. Malladi, Cees Dekker, Emrah Yucelen, Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski and Henny W. Zandbergen. Email |  h.w.zandbergen@tudelft.nl

ApplicationControllable Atomic Scale Patterning of Freestanding Monolayer Graphene at Elevated Temperature
AuthorsQiang Xu, Meng-Yue Wu, Grégory F. Schneider, Lothar Houben, Sairam K. Malladi, Cees Dekker, Emrah Yucelen, Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski and Henny W. Zandbergen.
JournalACS Nano, 2013, 7 (2), pp 1566–1572
SampleGraphene
TopicContamination Free, 2D Materials, Soft Matter, E-Beam Sensitive Imaging
FieldMaterial Science, Chemistry, Electronics, Life Science
TechniquesHRTEM, HRSTEM, EELS, Diffraction
KeywordsGraphene; Controlled Sculpting; Nondestructive Imaging; Nanopatterning; Self-repair
Publication / D.O.I.Full Publication Here – DOI: 10.1021/nn3053582

Controllable Atomic Scale Patterning of Freestanding Monolayer Graphene at Elevated Temperature

ABSTRACT: In order to harvest the many promising properties of graphene in (electronic) applications, a technique is required to cut, shape, or sculpt the material on the nanoscale without inducing damage to its atomic structure, as this drastically influences the electronic properties of the nanostructure. Here, we reveal a temperature-dependent self-repair mechanism that allows near-damage-free atomic-scale sculpting of graphene using a focused electron beam. We demonstrate that by sculpting at temperatures above 600 C, an intrinsic self-repair mechanism keeps the graphene in a single-crystalline state during cutting, even though the electron beam induces considerable damage. Self-repair is mediated by mobile carbon ad-atoms that constantly repair the defects caused by the electron beam. Our technique allows reproducible fabrication and simultaneous imaging of single-crystalline free-standing nanoribbons, nanotubes, nanopores, and single carbon chains.

FIGURE ABOVE: Annular dark field STEM images of graphene ribbon arrays sculpted in a reproducible way by using a script-controlled electron beam at elevated temperature. After the first sculpting process, the patterns were imaged as shown in (a). Next, each ribbon was reduced in width precisely, and image (b) was acquired. Intensity line profiles across the ribbon outlined by the white frames in (a) and (b) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. The width of the ribbon is estimated to be 4.0 nm after initial sculpting and 1.9 nm after final sculpting.

DENSsolutions Comments

Objective & Goal

Graphene, carbon nanotube and other soft-mater materials suffers irradiation damage caused by high energy electron beam during TEM characterization. The e-beam damage limits the observation time or observation electron beam condition, thus requiring a way to prevent. Moreover, application of graphene needs to patterning graphene into various functional devices with nano-size geometry. The e-beam induced damage can be utilized for creating a lithography method for graphene patterning. Achieving control of e-beam damage of graphene becomes an essential topic.

Benefit

DENSsolutions heating system provides the extreme high stability of sample at elevated temperature (sample spatial drift less than 0.5nm/min) At the elevated temperature, the e-beam induced defects of the sample can be repaired with a corresponding speed, therefore, provides an extra parameter for control of e-beam damage.

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